Preservation and Transfer of the Knowledge of Tibetan Medicine
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Scientific analysis of buddhist groups

Attacking skills and destroying relationships as a method on forcing to form dependency:
"We’ve seen his students over many years, and they have actually become worse human beings over time. Look at their lives: they live in modern slavery [...] We all realised he was sabotaging our relationships in the real world (particularly with family). We all realised that he would attack and belittle any skills we had or developed, making us dependent on him." in: https://pathgatesurvivors.com/2018/12/18/has-peter-yeung-really-helped-you/ date of retrieval: 15.1.2019 

Economic and social benefits at monastic colleges:
"In Europe and the Americas (I am purposely avoiding the seemingly dichotomous division of the world into “East” and “West”), Buddhism and, particularly, certain forms of Tibetan Buddhism are depicted as entirely reason-oriented cultures where allegiance and might do not make right. However, observation of Tibetan monastic colleges reveals that other forces are also at play—noncritical allegiance, disagreement for the sake of gaining economic and social advantage, pretension, opponent-bashing, intolerance of diversity, and so forth—much as in the educational institutions of Europe and the Americas. Nevertheless, a vital system of education is also sustained in these colleges such that they deserve to be called one of the notable achievements of the culture"
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Tibetan_Monastic_Rationality_Allegiance_Jeffrey_Hopkins.html  date of retrieval: 8.12.2018

Authority in Tibetan culture:
"Throughout Tibetan culture, there is a dual relationship with and against authority—on the one hand using it to inculcate allegiance and obedience and, on the other hand, putting what seems to be full confidence in reasoning that runs counter to authority. Faced with such a discrepancy, the culture has opted not for one or the other, or a bland mixture of the two, but for a plenitude of both."
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Tibetan_Monastic_Rationality_Allegiance_Jeffrey_Hopkins.html date of retrieval: 8.12.2018

"The claim that the Buddhism of one’s own sect is the final word, when put together with the hosts of controversy in the colleges of that very sect would seem to have warranted being drowned out in ridiculous laughter long ago. However, again, both sides of the matter are preserved; on the other hand, intellectual controversies are encouraged to the point where they are almost without limit"
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Tibetan_Monastic_Rationality_Allegiance_Jeffrey_Hopkins.html date of retrieval: 8.12.2018

"Little is done in Tibet in half measures—performing marathon debates in the freezing cold of January such that one’s hands crack open and bleed from slapping them together when making a point, drinking forty to sixty cups of tea a day, populating a single temple with literally hundreds of images, claiming an uncountable number of supernatural happenings (many, many speaking statues, images appearing spontaneously out of rock, etc.), and finding not just a few, but scores of reincarnated special beings throughout the country. The immediate ascription of divinity to almost anyone who makes a mark on the culture—ranging from political figures to spiritual geniuses who founded sects or became authors of college textbooks—undermines their own life stories of hard effort over decades of devotion, study, and meditation. The successful are separated from human endeavor. This produces the strange result of denying the efficacy of effort in a religion that by its own description is oriented toward self-development based on inner potential. Claiming divine descent becomes even in this Buddhist society a favored means of attracting attention in order to gain sociological, economic, and political benefits. Separating off the truly holy also excuses ordinary beings from making effort; the culture thereby protects itself from high expectations regarding practice. The obvious exaggeration involved in many of these claims of divine descent has led to the development of a counterforce, evidenced in monks, nuns, and lay persons who put little stock in the so-called recognized reincarnations, no matter who or what monastic or political institution has put forth the claim. The excessive inflation into divinity conflicts with the internal demands of the religion (1) to assess accurately one’s position in an uncontrolled process of cyclic rebirth into pain and (2) to examine carefully the psychological processes that produce one’s entrapment. The disparity between inflation and the need for realistic appraisal yields tension, which, in turn, feeds even more energy into the process. Activities with which one has become involved out of uncontrolled identification with the hated can become even more intense."
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Tibetan_Monastic_Rationality_Allegiance_Jeffrey_Hopkins.html date of retrieval: 8.12.2018

"With over 600 centres worldwide, the Tibetan Buddhist Diamond Way movement founded and led by Ole Nydahl (*1941) is a fast-growing global lay Buddhist movement and the arguably largest convert Buddhist movement in Central and Eastern Europe. [...] Their Diamond Way might be described as missionary² but does not (or only in a very limited way) fit the label “Neo-Buddhism” or “New Buddhism” (Coleman 2001); instead, it can be meaningfully described as a “neo-orthodox” (in Peter Berger’s terminology) or, better, a “neo-orthoprax” Tibetan Buddhist lay movement (see Scherer 2012). [...] Nydahl has drawn criticism from Buddhist and non-Buddhists, academics and non-academics alike for his seemingly unconventional teaching style, his personal life, his political views and his involvement in the ongoing dispute about the identity of the 17th Karmapa, the Karma Kagyu hierarch (Scherer 2009; 2011). In this regard, Nydahl occupies a curious place among the different western Buddhist Teachers of the 20th and 21st century. His missionary activities are clearly linked to his uncompromising devotion to the late Sixteenth Karmapa hierarch (1924–1981), after whose death the Diamond Way transitioned from a limited, grass root convert movement to a player in the politics of global Tibetan Buddhism [...] This trajectory is a deliberate yet restrictive selection from the vast richness of Kagyu practices. In personal communication, one particular high Karma Kagyu master called the Diamond Way a Buddhist ‘primary school, from which you can graduate to more substantial teachings’. " "² Scherer 2009: 27; on the application of the term to Buddhist movements see Learman 2005."
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Ole_Nydahl_and_Diamond_Way_B_Scherer.html Abrufdatum: 5.12.2018

"As a neo-orthoprax movement, “transmission” figures prominently in the Diamond Way as a hermeneutical category for claiming spiritual validation, identification and authenticity. Nydahl utilises “transmission” as motifeme (i.e. as minimum structural feature of narrative function); through some hermeneutics of suspicion this might appear as a vehicle of self-stylisation; through hermeneutics of trust, genuine transmission narratives can be viewed as necessary for spiritual claims: charisma itself is insufficient (cp. Caplan 2001: 421–427). Two widely circulated and stylised autobiographical books form the core of Nydahl’s legitimisation and transmission accounts (see below: sources). They fulfil the function of hagiographies, which constitute the narrative dimension of the Diamond Way’s identitarian cohesion, emphasised in almost every public lecture given by Nydahl himself."
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Ole_Nydahl_and_Diamond_Way_B_Scherer.html Abrufdatum: 5.12.2018

"The Diamond Way’s late charismatic phase is marked by increasing consolidation, institutionalisation and a strong in-group pressure to conformity. Due to growing external criticism, Nydahl has adopted a more rigid approach concerning his followers in matters of political activism (“no politics in the centres”) and conduct codes for social media. In particular the support teachers are expected to close ranks: In 2010, Nydahl publicly revoked the authority of one particular ‘traveling teacher’ to teach in Nydahl’s name, because this teacher had reportedly emphasised a more Tibetan form and style of practice in the teachings he gave. Other prominent eccentric and/or critical voices were either silenced and marginalised or publicly ostracised. Since 2007, less personality cult-oriented Diamond Way students have been reporting of an uncomfortable atmosphere of ‘Ole-normative’ suspicion, fear and peer pressure in several of Nydahl’s centres and groups: late-charismatic paranoia appears to surface at least in some parts of the movement"
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Ole_Nydahl_and_Diamond_Way_B_Scherer.html Abrufdatum: 5.12.2018

"Based on hermeneutics of suspicion, one might perceive an authoritarian leadership here and an attempt to consolidate by creating conformism and silencing internal dissidence and the toleration of (present and future) personality-cult-based sectarianism; all these features are commonly connected with “cults.” Based on hermeneutics of trust, one could argue that, in late-charismatic periods, the consolidation of a movement necessarily entails creating and solidifying the highest possible cohesion and communal vision in order to carry the movement through the tribulations after the charismatic leader’s death. Irrespective of the observer’s view, the struggle between orthodox idealists and neo-Buddhist sectarians, coupled with multiple other factors such as relations and cooperation with the Tibetan Karma Kagyu hierarchy, the nature and scope of the spiritual authority granted to Nydahl’s Diamond Way teachers, ombudsmen and administrators, as well as regional and global cohesion and identity among Nydahl’s centres will be of key interest as the final pages of the Danish Lama’s hagiography and the future of his legacy are written."
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Ole_Nydahl_and_Diamond_Way_B_Scherer.html Abrufdatum: 5.12.2018

Buddhism and power:
"kindness and compassion toward sentient beings are a significant part of Tibetan Buddhism, as is, of course, the idea of working for the benefit of sentient beings. These are not, however, identical with Gandhian ahimsa; nor are they all there is to Tibetan Buddhism in practice; among those ideas that have played a role in the political history of Tibet are notions about protecting the doctrine. These ideas and the methods for realizing them have, in fact, been of crucial significance in making Tibetan Buddhism a vehicle for power in the arena of world history, first for Tangut emperors, then for Mongol, Chinese, and Manchu rulers: Tibetan Buddhism, from this perspective, was a means toward the attainment of power—in defense of and for the spread of the doctrine, to be sure"
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Orientalism_Violence_Tibetan_Buddhism_Elliot_Sperling.html date of retrieval: 8.12.2018

"In spite of this, however, we can easily find descriptions of Tibetan Buddhism that take the present Dalai Lama’s views on nonviolence—phrased, significantly, with the Gandhian term ahimsa—and make of them a Buddhist value that has dominated Tibetan political history and the institution of the Dalai Lama for centuries. Thus we come up with simplistic accounts that describe the Mongol adoption of Tibetan Buddhism in the thirteenth century solely in terms of the moral attraction that Buddhism held for the Mongol emperors. This is not to say that morality is not a part of Tibetan Buddhism, but the account we are often given of the conversion of the Mongols is a rather skewed reading of what actually transpired. The Fifth Dalai Lama has been described as having brought about the pacification of the Mongols four centuries later through his charismatic teaching of Buddhism."
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Orientalism_Violence_Tibetan_Buddhism_Elliot_Sperling.html date of retrieval: 8.12.2018

"There is no doubt that there are biases and stereotypes (both positive and negative) that operate among people. However, the manner in which these might be manifested in a given individual cannot simply be reduced to a function of that individual’s class, nation, and so forth. As a result, the critique of stereotypical images of Asia that has been spawned by Orientalism is in many instances the product of a large-scale decontextualization: The non-Western precedents for these stereotypes—including those of Tibet itself—are wholly ignored."
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Orientalism_Violence_Tibetan_Buddhism_Elliot_Sperling.html date of retrieval: 8.12.2018

"The Tibetans prided themselves on what they believed to be a unique tradition, the “coalition of religion and politics” (chos srid zung ’brel). The concept itself goes a long way back in Tibet’s history. However, many other countries still have similar traditions. It was only at the beginning of the 20th century that countries like France began to have the legislation for the separation of Church and State that gave birth to the idea of practicing religion as a personal belief not regulated by the state. The process of secularization has been slow, but it is moving inexorably forward. This state secularism is the modern trend in many countries the world over. It was startling to see a political meeting that took place in Dharamsala on May 3–4 2008 and broadcast on YouTube. It was attended by the heads of all the Tibetan religious sects and was presided over by the 14th Dalai Lama. The topic of the discussion was the tulku issue, the reincarnated lamas, but the outcome of the discussion has not been reported. Not a single layman took part in the gathering not to mention any women. One wondered what happened to the famous democratization of the exiled Tibetan community in India or of the gender balance."
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Religion_Politics_Tibet_Samten_Karmay.html date of retrieval: 8.12.2018

"In a recent interview given in Tokyo HH the Dalai Lama stated that he favoured in fact ‘secularism’. The reason he gave was that ‘secularism’ has no room for ‘sectarianism’. It is also reported that he recently lauded India’s ‘secular values’. Indeed, Tibetan Buddhism has often been plagued by sectarian strife and this is still continuing in spite of HH the Dalai Lama’s strenuous efforts to discourage and condemn it."
in: https://info-buddhism.com/Religion_Politics_Tibet_Samten_Karmay.html date of retrieval: 8.12.2018